Titanium

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Present in meteorites and in the sun, titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the earth's crust. It's presence is found in almost all igneous rocks, in the ash of coal, in plants and in the human body. Pure titanium is a silvery white, lustrous metal with low density and good strength. In powder form, it is dark gray. Titanium is malleable when warmed and easily fabricated. Titanium is as strong as steel with only 45% of its weight, so when combined with other metals, it greatly improves strength and ability to withstand extremes of temperature.

 

Crystal Structure:

      α phase: Close-packed hexagonal; a = 0.295030 nm, c = 0.468312, c/a = 1.5873.

      β phase: Body-centered cubic, a = 0.332 nm at 900 oC.

 

Mass Characteristics:

Atomic Weight: 47.9

Density:

          α phase: 4.507 g/cm3 at 20 oC.

          β phase: 4.35 g/cm3 at 885 oC.

 

Thermal Properties:

Melting Point: 1668 + 10 oC

Boiling Point: 3260 oC (estimated)

Vapor Pressure (From 1587 to 1698 K): log P = 7.7960 - (24,644/T) - 0.000227 T
                                                                 (where P is in Pa and T is in K). 
                                                                                  

Phase Transformation Temperature: α to β, 882.5 oC

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion: At 20 oC: 8.41 x 10-6/ oC.  

                                                    At 1000 oC: 10.1 x 10-8/ oC (estimated).

 Specific Heat:

       Below 13 K: Cp = 0.0706 + 5.43 x 10-4 T3

       Above Room Temperature: Cp = 669.0 - 0.037188 T - 1.080 x 107 T-2 (where Cp is in J/kg ⋅ K and T is in K)

                       Temperature, K                   Cp, kJ/kg ⋅ K

                               50                                    0.0993

                               100                                  0.3002

                               200                                  0.4651

                               500                                   0.6072

Latent Heat of Fusion: 440 kJ/kg (estimated)

Latent Heat of Transformation: 91.8 kJ/kg (estimated)

Latent Heat of Vaporization: 9.83 MJ/kg (estimated)

Thermal Conductivity: 11.4 W/k ⋅ K at -240 oC

 

 Electrical Properties:

Electrical Resistivity: 420 nΩ ⋅ m at 20 o

Superconductivity (Critical Temperature): 0.37 to 0.56 K

 

Magnetic Properties:

Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume, at Room Temperature): 180 (+ 1.7) x 10-6 mks

 

Optical Properties:

Total Hemispherical Emittance: 0.30 at 710 oC